Occupational disease covers states of temporary or permanent illness, physical or mental disability suffered by the insured as a result of a recurrent factor due to the nature of his/her work or management of affairs.

Diseases That May Be Contracted By the University Staff

Diseases that may be contracted by our staff are listed below based on the degree of frequency:

  • Musculoskeletal disorders
  • Eye diseases
  • Dysphonia and Vocal Cords Dysfunctions

Musculoskeletal Disorders

Occupational musculoskeletal disorders have become frequent as a result of longer hours spent by staff at their desks (lack of movement).

The most frequent occupational musculoskeletal disorders are:

  • Loss of cervical lordosis (Stiff neck syndrome)
  • Nerve compression at wrist (Carpal tunnel syndrome)
  • Tendonitis in thumb and wrist
  • Tendonitis in shoulder and elbow
  • Herniated disc
  • Cervical disc hernia


Back and Neck: Acute pain, stiffness.

Shoulders: Pain, stiffness, loss of motion.

Arms and Legs: Acute pain, numbness, incapability.

Joints: Pain, swelling, stiffness, redness.

Diseases Caused by Working Long Periods in Standing Position

Working long periods in standing position carries with it the risk of upper and lower back disorders. Spinal disorders, a subdivision of musculoskeletal diseases, pose a risk for staff falling under this category. Preventative methods training given to staff and exercises shall provide protection against such diseases. This type of occupational diseases may be prevented by way of periodic medical checks and ergonomic exercises.

Eye Diseases

Human eyes make around 30 thousand movements between the monitor, keyboard and documents in the course of an 8-hour work in front of a screen.

This causes drying of the eye fluid, which leads to complaints such as burning and watering of the eyes.

Working with Display Screen Equipment

  • Monitor features
  • User’s position
  • Lighting of the environment
  • Light reflections on the screen
  • Eyeglass/contact lens use as a result of visual impairment

Tips for Eye Health

  • Monitor viewing distance should be approximately 46-76 cm.
  • The vertical screen angle should be adjusted in order to eliminate reflections.
  • Eye strain may result from dry eyes and looking at the screen for prolonged periods of time. You should blink often while working.
  • You should take regular breaks to rest eye in prolonged working with screen and the visual angle should be adjusted to prevent eye strain.
  • The 20/20/20 rule should be applied to rest eye muscles.

Dysphonia and Vocal Cords Dysfunctions

Vocal cords are the most important elements of speaking. If misapplied or misused, various vocal cord problems may emerge.

When we use our voice intensively, the most frequent problem we may face is dysphonia.

Causes of Dysphonia


  • Mis/overusing the vocal cords
  • Laryngitis
  • Smoking


  • Benign vocal cord nodules, cysts or polyps
  • Vocal cord paresis
  • Post-nasal drainage (resulting from an allergy or infection)
  • Acid reflux
  • Throat tumours, lung diseases
  • Irritation around vocal cords
  • Psychological conditions
  • Diseases such as diabetics or neurological conditions also affecting vocal cords as well as other parts of the body

Tips for Vocal Health

  • Drink warm water (8-10 glasses per day).
  • Avoid smoke.
  • Manage your stress, keep it under control.
  • Humidify your working environment air.
  • Avoid beverages containing caffeine such as coffee and coke as well as tea that can dry your vocal cords.